Cinco De Mayo Vallejo
250 Georgia Street Vallejo CA 10AM to 4PM
Solano AIDS Coalition
Program of Events
10:00 AM Commencement of Celebration
11:00 AM Ballet Folklorico Quetzalli de American Canyon y Vallejo
11:30 AM Music
12:00 PM Guests Speakers
12:15 PM Ballet Folklorico Moon Azteca
1:00 PM Trinni Voz Versatil
2:00 PM Presentation for Mr Paul. Shoe The Children Without Shoes On Their feet www.prjeckiks.org
3:30 PM End of Cinco De Mayo Celebration
A Very Special Thanks To VHHC & Solano Hispanic Chamber of Commerce
History Of Cinco De Mayo
Solano County COVID19 Protocols required. Face Masks required
Cinco de Mayo (pronounced [ˈsiŋko̞ ðe̞ ˈma̠ʝo̞] in Mexico, Spanish for “Fifth of May”) is an annual celebration held on May 5.
How it all started?
In October 1861, France, England and Spain held a meeting called the London Convention, where due to Mexico’s refusal to comply with its payment responsibilities with those countries, they undertook to send military contingents to our country to demand payment. of a debt of approximately 80 million pesos, of which 69 million were owed to the English, 9 million to the Spanish and only 2 million to France.
Shortly after that meeting, the representatives of the three countries sent a very clear ultimatum to the government of Mexico: “If there was no payment … there would be an invasion.”
President Juárez, ruled a young country mired in poverty, which was the result of decades of civil wars and was just beginning to rise in its economy. Then upon receiving such a clear message from these world powers, he responded with an invitation to achieve a friendly settlement on both sides, although it is worth mentioning that to convince such aggressive creditors, President Juárez, used his best element: Manuel Doblado , who he was was the foreign minister and in February 1862 he met with the representatives of the countries in dispute.
Thanks to his ability as a negotiator, the Preliminary Treaties of La Soledad were signed, in which respect for the integrity and independence of the country was guaranteed, in addition, it was agreed that the negotiations on the debt would be held in Orizaba, Veracruz, where would establish the armies of the creditor countries, it was agreed that if an agreement was not reached, these armies would withdraw to the coast in order to formally begin hostilities.
Shortly after, in April 1862 the tripartite alliance broke down as Spain and England realized that France had a very different interest under the mask of an economic claim, they discovered that the French wanted to overthrow the young republican government of Mexico to establish a monarchy that would favor its colonial policy, and seeking to counteract the growing power of the United States on the American continent.
It is known that the instructions of Napoleon III ordered to the military leader of the expedition consisted of expanding his dominions in America to support the colonies in the Antilles and in South America, thus guaranteeing the supply of raw materials in France.
In other words, they sought to maintain the lifestyle of the French, at the cost of the impoverishment of Mexico.
On March 5, when negotiations were still taking place in Orizaba, a French military contingent under the command of Charles Ferdinand Latrille, Count of Lorencez, arrived in Veracruz and headed to Tehuacán, knocking down all possible agreements and looking for nothing else. than an invasion.
A very notorious case happened when at that time the conservative general Juan Nepomuceno Almonte also arrived, who immediately proclaimed himself “supreme head of the nation” and began to rally the conservative troops that had remained from the War of the Reform, to support the French.
Before the hostilities began, Lorencez sent a message to the French Minister of War at the time, which read: “We are so superior to Mexicans in organization, discipline, race, morality and refinement of sensibilities, that I beg you to announce to His Imperial Majesty, Napoleon III, that from this moment and under the command of our 6,000 brave soldiers, I already own Mexico”
The confidence that Lorencez had was not only due to an impeccable army, but to the general fragility of Mexico and its institutions. With an economy destroyed by nearly 50 years of civil wars, a weak state, and a population divided by factional strife, the conquest of the country seemed a feasible undertaking with a small contingent.
Upon learning about the advance, General Alejandro Constante Jiménez, commanding 1,000 soldiers, joined General Zaragoza “Yo no tengo Partido, temgo Patria”, who left Puebla with 2,000 soldiers to meet the French, who were already holding some encounters with Mexican guerrillas that were led by Mariano Escobedo.
Zaragoza, at that time, had various problems to form its army, due to the lack of volunteers and the constant hostilities with conservative groups left over from the War of the Reform. Faced with these situations, it had to resort to the compulsory recruitment of General Mariano Escobedo Mexican Guerrillas of civilians.
Although there was a young but experienced officer corps, most of the troop lacked minimal discipline, was poorly equipped, trained and fed. In the days before the battle, Zaragoza repeatedly requested the high command in Mexico City to send urgent economic resources, since he could not cover even the basic needs of his troops.
As if this were not enough, on March 6 there had been an explosion in a powder magazine in the town of San Andrés Chalchicomula (today Ciudad Serdán), which had killed 1,322 soldiers of the Oaxaca Brigade sent by General Ignacio Mejía to join the Army of the East.
By May 4, Mexican explorers already had news of a column of conservatives on horseback, led by Leonardo Márquez and José María Cobos, which was marching through the Atlixco area to join Lorencez’s forces to attack together the city of Puebla.
Zaragoza in response sent a 2,000-man brigade under the command of Mariano Escobedo, Tomás O’Horán, and Antonio Carbajal, in order to stop them. After a hard battle, the conservative troops were defeated and failed in their attempt to join the French.
Although their forces had diminished, the Mexicans prepared for the defense of Puebla using two battle and two mountain artillery batteries, covering the forts of Loreto and Guadalupe with 1,200 men and forming another 3,500 in four columns of infantry with a battle battery and a cavalry brigade by the side of the road to Amozoc.
At 9:15 a.m. on May 5, the French appeared on the horizon, advancing from the nearby Hacienda de Rementería, crossing fire with the brave cavalry guerrillas of Mariano Escobedo who did not retreat until the French lines were formed and ready to go. move along. The battle began formally at 11:15 in the morning, announced with a cannon shot from the Fort of Guadalupe and accompanied by the ringing of the city’s bells.
The French, supported by the 1st and 2nd Marine Infantry Regiments, pounced on the Mexican line, being received by their bayonets.
The French column was repulsed in Guadeloupe and Loreto, the attacks of other deployed French columns being equally repelled. At that moment, Mexican Colonel José Rojo advised Antonio Álvarez that it was time for the Mariano Escobedo Mexican cavalry to move into action to achieve a complete victory. He ordered the Carabineros de Pachuca to shoot and throw saber blows on the French, these being totally rejected.
At two thirty in the afternoon, when a victory for the Mexicans began to take shape, Lorencez prepared to launch the last assault, leading the Vincennes Hunters and the world famous Zuavos Regiment, (who were the elite of the French army) towards the Guadalupe fort, while launching a second attack column composed of the remains of the battle corps. Faced with this situation, the Sappers of San Luis Potosí, commanded by General Escobedo and Lamadrid, came out to meet him, fighting a terrible battle with bayonets.
At that moment, after being repelled for the last time, the French troops began to flee, completely dispersed. They retreated to the Los Alamos ranch, to finally retreat to Amozoc.
At the end of the hostilities, the report that General Zaragoza gave on the Battle of Puebla to President Benito Juárez was brief and significant:
It is worth mentioning that Mexico’s victory did not last long. A year later thirty thousand French troops managed to defeat the Mexican Army, in this way France managed to take control of Mexico and establish Maximilian of Habsburg as the authoritarian emperor of Mexico. Despite having good intentions and a noble heart, the new emperor did not support his empire for long and the victory of France was not consolidated either, his duration was only 3 years.
Due to the conflictive situation in Europe, Napoleon III withdrew military and economic support for Maximiliano, at the same time Mexican republicans began to receive financial and diplomatic support from the United States at the end of the Civil War in that country.
Mariano Escobedo fought against them in the states of Guerrero, Puebla and Oaxaca, until his forces were defeated. He then undertook a long and adventurous journey that took him to his native deserts, where he gathered a group of volunteers who in 1865 reactivated the guerrilla resistance in the northeast of the country. There he fought dozens of battles against the French and Mexican conservatives who supported
to the emperor Maximilian. Little by little, Escobedo was gaining the place of honor among the other leaders of the region, for which Benito Juárez appointed him commander-in-chief of the Republican Army of the North.
In the summer of 1866, Escobedo’s forces controlled the northeastern states, forcing the French and Conservatives to retreat. At the end of the same year they began their advance towards the center of the country. When Maximiliano concentrated his last forces in Querétaro, Escobedo was appointed supreme commander of the republican armies that gathered to besiege the emperor and on May 15 he took the city. Thus, the Austrian personally surrendered to the Mexican general, thus closing a chapter in our history.
On April 2 of the following year, troops led by the Juarista Porfirio Díaz took the city of Puebla with which the empire was militarily annihilated. On January 31, 1866, Napoleon III ordered the withdrawal of French troops, to be conducted in three stages from November 1866 to November 1867. Seward, who had earlier been more cautious, warned the Austrian Government against replacing French troops with its own forces, and the threat of war convinced the Austrian government to refrain from sending Maximilian reinforcements. Without European support, Maximilian was unable to retain power. His capture by Mexican forces, court-martial, and sentence to be executed, marked the end of direct European intervention in Mexico.
When in France the defeat of the French army was known, they suffered a lot of pain, hysteria and crying, mainly when the fantasy stories arrived that the indigenous Zacapoaxtlas had attacked the French army with machetes – with disbelief and amazement, commented on how the French army was considered one of the most experienced and respected of its time. The French military were surrounded by an aura of invincibility in combat, undefeated since the Battle of Waterloo in 1815, had been defeated by the Mexican army.
How Do We Celebrate the Battle of May 5 Today?
In our city, the Battle of Puebla is one of the main festivities of Puebla, in which it is celebrated with a civic-military parade in which students from various educational institutions, civil organizations and different battalions of infantry and armed forces participate; at the end there is a popular festival accompanied by typical dishes, music and parties, which is now known as the 5 de Mayo International Festival.
More popularly celebrated in the United States than in Mexico, the date has become associated with the celebration of Mexican-American culture. These celebrations began in California, where they have been observed annually. The day gained nationwide popularity in the 1970s When the festivals were organized by Radio DJ Homero Campos. And in 1982 with the song Cinco de Mayo by WAR.
In Mexico, the commemoration of the battle continues to be mostly ceremonial, such as through military parades or battle reenactments. The city of Puebla marks the event with an arts festival, a festival of local cuisine, and re-enactments of the battle. Cinco de Mayo is sometimes mistaken for Mexico’s Independence Day—the most important national holiday in Mexico—which is celebrated on September 16, commemorating the Cry of Dolores, which, in 1810, initiated the war of Mexican independence from Spain.
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